Dietary supplements provide essential nutrients for specific individuals, and not everyone requires to take these supplements. Around 87% of adults of the United States consume vitamins or supplements, but less than 26% of them have a nutritional deficiency, which is clinically proven. These supplements, when taken in excess, can be dangerous.
Vitamin D is fat-soluble, so in the body, an excess level of Vitamin D can be stored. Vitamin D is found in several non-enriched foods and is also available in supplements form; UV rays of the sun are also a source of vitamin D, which interacts with the skin. Vitamin D enables the mineralization of bone & prevents lower than average levels of calcium in the liquid part of the blood by allowing the absorption of calcium in the stomach, as well as it balances the concentrations of phosphate. Excessive intake of vitamin D can result in loss of appetite, abnormal level of urine, and weight loss. Calcium is required for the health of bone, and if one does not get enough calcium from the food, the supplement will be helpful. Calcium supplements are divided into two types that are carbonate & citrate. The daily requirement of calcium for men aged from 50 to 69 years is 1,100 mg, & for women in the same age group is 1,500 mg. Due to abnormal cell division, the calcium deposition in organs could result in a very high level of calcium intake. This deposition of calcium takes the form of calcification of the soft tissue & blood vessels. Calcium supplements have been associated with heart disease and kidney stones.
Vitamin A can accumulate in the human body because it is fat-soluble. Vitamin A is found in natural food sources, including fruits, meats, and vegetables. Vitamin A is essential for the proper functioning of the organs, vision, reproduction, & immunity. It is available as a supplement as beta-carotene or provitamin A, and in numerous multivitamin preparations. Vitamin A supplements result in nausea, headaches & dizziness, and it can also cause death & coma. Excess Vitamin A in pregnant women can lead to congenital disabilities. Potassium supplements are taken to lower blood pressure. The high dose of potassium supplement could lead to cardiac arrest when consumed with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors & certain diuretics. Iron is beneficial for infants & pregnant women with insufficient iron intake. When iron is consumed on an empty stomach, it can result in gastric disturbance, constipation, nausea, vomiting, & faintness. Hence, it is advisable to consume dietary supplements after a proper medical check-up to avoid complications.