Earth’s magnetic poles which are considered as the foundation of the navigation system are moving actively. Science 1831, the north magnetic pole is moving slowly across the Canadian Arctic towards Russia. In recent years, the pole is moving towards Siberia at a speed of around 34 miles per year. The change in direction has forced scientists to modernize the World Magnetic Model, which is used for civilian navigation, British and the US militaries and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization a year before the schedule. The magnetic field of the earth reverses its polarity in every several hundred thousand years. In which the north pole lives at the geographic position of the South Pole. The last reversal of poles has taken place before 770,000 years. According to scientists, to complete reversal of field or pole the earth took around 22,000 years that is a much more extended period than expected.
The scientists analyzed the reversal of earth by studying the global survey of lava flows, Antarctic ice cores, and ocean sediments. The result of the study revealed details of Earth’s magnetic field that has reversed, shifted partially, and weakened over millions of years. According to Brad Singer, a geologist from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the reversals are caused in the interior parts of the Earth, but the effects are visible in the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface. The magnetic field of the planet is created by the interaction between the spinning liquid iron outer core around the solid inner core. The strong magnetic field weakens when a reversal occurs.
The magnetic field of the earth decreases about 5% in strength every century and the signs of weakening of magnetic field point to reversal. It’s challenging to know the exact period when a reversal is going to happen. If the reversal happens, it can impact satellites, communications, and navigation. According to Brad Singer, now the scientists have more data about last reversal then before.